دسته : علوم انسانی
فرمت فایل : doc
حجم فایل : 123
تعداد صفحات : 26
بازدیدها : 322
برچسبها : دانلود پروپوزال
مبلغ : 35000 تومانخرید این فایل
پروپوزال تاثیر نگرانی آزمون شنیداری بر یادگیرندگان زبان انگلیسی ایرانی تمرکز در آزمون شنیداری
بیان مسأله اساسی تحقیق به طور كلی (شامل تشریح مسأله و معرفی آن، بیان جنبههای مجهول و مبهم، بیان متغیرهای مربوطه و منظور از تحقیق) :
The impression of the research is to investigate the relationship of anxiety with the learner’s listening comprehension, because anxiety is a normal and useful emotion when we feel under threat: it puts us on the alert and gets our body ready to cope with the danger. It saves your life if you run to make it across the road because a car is speeding too fast towards you. It involves our thoughts, body reactions, and behaviors. It does not mean you are “crazy”, it is a common psychological problem and it cannot lead, in itself, to death or mental illness. It also is a normal emotion and common experience, and it represents one of the most basic of human emotions. At one time or another, all of us are likely to be “stressed out,” worried about finances or health or the children, fearful in certain situations (such as when on a ladder or just before an operation), and concerned about what other people think. In general, anxiety serves to motivate and protect an individual from harm or unpleasant consequences.
Researches on test anxiety in EFL learning point out that the factors that influence students’ reactions to language tests are perceptions of test validity, time limit, test techniques, test format, length, testing environment and clarity of test instructions (Young, 1999). The researches show that test validity is one of significant factors that produce test anxiety. For instance, Young (1991) found that students experience anxiety if the test involves content that was not taught in class. Similarly, Horwitz and Young (1991) noted that tests in the lack of face validity led to higher anxiety and a negative attitude toward instruction. In the same way, Young (1999) investigated the effects of anxiety on ESL tests and found that high anxiety producing tests were also perceived by students as less valid. Another factor that increases test anxiety and decreases performance is time limit. For instance, in a study conducted by Young (1991) learners sometimes felt pressured to think that they had to organize their ideas in a short period of time.